Monthly Archives: June 2015

New Books in French

1. Yvon Delemontey. Reconstruire la France L’aventure du béton assemblé 1940-1955, Ed de la Villette, 2015, 398 p. 

This book examines the changes to the industry of construction and architecture that emerged in France during the period directly following the Second World War. In order to rebuild cities after the war, innovative design and building processes were needed, leading to the rapid expansion of prefabrication—made possible by the use of concrete. While prefabrication led to new and exciting technical processes, architects at the time worried about the possible drawbacks of moving towards absolute rationalization of these processes.

2. Pierre Sansot. Paysages de l’existence. Essais, infolio Archigraphy Poche, 173 p.

This collection brings together eight works either previously unpublished or published in journals that are difficult to track down today. Dealing with a material universe constantly in flux, these works capture the distinctive quality of Sansot’s thought.

3. Jean-Pierre Orfeuil et Fabrice Ripoll. Accès et mobilités les nouvelles inégalités, Infolio Archigraphy Poche-Futurs Urbains , 2015, 209 p.

The first of an interdisciplinary book series proposed by LABEX Futurs Urbains, Jean-Pierre and Fabrice Ripoll explore the intersection between social and mobility/access inequalities. Orfeuil addresses the issue by focusing on access to resources and territories, and the social consequences of limited mobility. Ripoll argues for an approach to mobility as a social construction, focusing on the forms of constraint inherent in travel as well as strategies for resistance.

4. Loïc Vadelorge. Retour sur les villes nouvelles: Une histoire urbaine du xxesiècle, Créaphis editions, 2014, 424 p.

This book provides the first historical synthesis of the creation of new cities in France between 1965-1975. Focusing on examples from the Paris region, Vadelorge provides an analysis of the origins and history of the concept of “new cities.” With this book, Vadelorge makes a decisive contribution to the history of urban and land use planning in the last half of the twentieth century.

5. Isabelle Hajek et Philippe Hamman. La gouvernance de la ville durable entre déclin et reinventions: Une comparaison Nord/Sud, PUR, 2014, 283 p.

This book interrogates the concepts of “sustainable city” and “urban governance,” which were first conceived in light of rising concerns of the global environment. With particular attention to European and southern areas of the Mediterranean, the authors examine the paradoxical tension that characterizes the project of “Governing the Sustainable City “: programmed decline, impoverishment and even death, on the one hand, and yet uncertain local reinventions and indigenous alternatives, on the other.

Stephanie Bailey (University of Alberta) 

Active Audience – Huimin Jin

Review: Active Audience: A New materialistic interpretation of a key concept in cultural studies, Huimin Jin. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag 2012. 179pp.

Why are Chinese scholars interested in active audience theories that hark back to the 1980s and 1990s? In an exchange in Active Audience, David Morley comments to author Huimin Jin, Prime Professor at Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing:

“As I understand your argument, you are suggesting that we face a move from a ‘producer society’ to a ‘consumer society’, that the concept of the masses’ (as mobilized in the Frankfurt School’s work) is a characteristic of what you call a producer society and that popular culture is then, conversely, associated with the consumer society. From that premise, if I understand you rightly, you see ‘active audience theory’ as being to do with the extent to which, in this thing called the ‘consumer society’, people have more choices… I think that’s a problematic form of historical periodization and one which is characteristic of a certain type of sociological approach”

Imported in the wake of the reception of British Marxist Cultural Studies of the Birmingham School the core notion of the active audience emphasizes the independence of meaning from any authors intention as texts, images and film are received and reinterpreted in different contexts. Stuart Hall was a key figure in developing an “encoding/decoding model”. The idea comes out of the 1960s social psychology of Raymond Bauer who pitted the “obstinate audience” against simplistic sender-receiver models. On one hand, the active audience is an independent collective which does not respond in a mechanical manner to the explicit messages of mass media but always reflects, comments on and attempts to interpret messages. They “actively” decode messages and meanings. On the other hand, the resistance offered by the active audience has proved a poor buttress against imperial and commercial ambitions.

Jin follows David Morley’s model as a critique of the assumptions of the determinism of technologies and media and the passive, duped audiences often presented by Frankfurt School writers in their critiques of Nazi propaganda.  What is most fascinating about the book is its shift away from communication theory to consider the everyday context which shapes the reception of information.  In doing so, while carefully following Morley’s lead, the book is genuinely new in its use of Husserl’s phenomenology of the “lifeword” and a Heideggerian approach to being-in-the-world which emphasizes the ways people reflect on their world and make it meaningful for themselves.  Jin draws on his broad experience in German intellectual history to move from the discursive, which is generally involves abstract representations, to root the discussion in the real.  For me, this everyday reality, spans both the actual here-and-now “concrete” fabric of life and also its “virtual”, intangible elements such as trust, community and society that frame our understanding of communication.  This turn to everyday world and away from the pure context of texts or, for example, a television broadcast, reflects Prof. Jin’s status as the preeminent interpreter of Confucius in China today.

 

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